Granny Smith Apple
Malus domestica × Malus sylvestris
Granny smith apple is native to Australia and it was discovered that a woman named Maria Anna Smith cultivated mistakenly its seed in the 1860s. That`s why it is called granny smith. Granny means grandmother and smith was the name of this lady. According to available sources this plant is the result of a cross between species of Malus domestica and Malus sylvestris.
For the first time in the 1930s granny smith apple was exported to the European Union. Then it reached the United States in the 1970s. This type of apple was found abundant in supermarkets because due to its thick skin and its storage properties it was suitable for transportation. This fruit can be harvested from late March and kept in storage until November. Granny smith apples today are cultivated in Australia, Europe, New Zealand, South America and the United States.
1. Increasing Antioxidant Activity
Granny smith apple is rich in flavonoids especially Cyanidin and Epicatechin. Vitamin c and flavonoids of this fruit are powerful antioxidants that protect body from damaging of free radicals and thus reduce the risk of heart diseases, diabetes and etc.
2. Promoting Weight Loss
The amount of calorie in the granny smith apple is low and high fiber content also helps to lose weight. The soluble fiber in the soft fruit section absorbs water in the intestine and forms a gel-like substance that reduces digestive speed. If you consume granny smith apple at the time of the evening or exactly before food you will feel full for a longer time. A study was conducted at the University of Washington and researchers gave seven types of apples to obese mice and they observed that in mice that ate granny smith apple the bacterial composition of the stool was changed and resembled the combination of bacteria in the feces of thin mice. The significance of this finding is that the bacteria population of digestive system is different in thin and obese mice and this matter also applies to humans. With the consumption of granny smith apple, ratio of bacteria like E-coli was similar to their ratio in thin mice and granny smith apple had more effect in comparison to other types of apples. According to researchers, fiber and poly phenols of this kind of apple even after they are exposed to chewing, gastric acids and digestive enzymes they remain healthy. When these ingredients reach the intestine they produce Butyric acid which leads to the development of beneficial bacteria. This rebalancing of the intestinal microbial population leads to weight loss which is why we say that consumption of granny smith apple is effective in weight loss.
3. Regulating Blood Pressure
Researchers at the University of Michigan in a report mentioned that apple can reduce oxidative stress, blood pressure and cholesterol level. In an unpublished study, they initially caused obesity in Syrian mice and then gave half of the mice the apple. At the end of the study the group that ate apple was less in the risk of heart disease and had a higher overall health level.
4. Regulating Blood Glucose Levels
Based on reported experiences granny smith apple can keep blood sugar levels in balance, this is important for people with diabetes or in the risk of developing this disease. The fiber of granny smith apple delays the absorption of sugar in the small intestine and reduces the risk of type-2 diabetes. Based on the report of Best Health Magazine website the risk of developing type-2 diabetes in women who ate an apple a day is 30% less than others.
5. Improving Cardiovascular System Function
Potassium content of granny smith apple is higher than other types of apples. Potassium is an electrolyte that keeps the fluids of inside and around the cell in balance.
This is necessary for an electrical current inside the body that causes the heart to beat. For this reason, the use of this fruit is useful for heart health. Based on a research that had been done on humans and its results have been published in Journal of Functional Foods, daily use of apple could reduce the severity of the arteries. In people that ate the apple for four weeks daily, it reduced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). By stopping this oxidation, the creation of plaque (accumulation of fat in the vessels) and the occurrence of heart disease are prevented. In fact, people with coronary artery disease who received the apple diet observed improvement in arteries.
6. Improving Memory Function
Quercetin that is one of ingredients of granny smith apple is a powerful antioxidant that its effect against free radicals can be stronger than vitamin c. Based on results of a research that published in Journal of Agriculture and Food; Quercetin could protect nerves against oxidative stress better than vitamin C. Some impressions have the meaning that Quercetin reduces the likelihood of developing nerves disorders such as Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s.
Researchers in journal of APTEFF published the results of the study evaluating the effect of the use of granny smith apple on cancer cells. By examining the effect of granny smith apple on three cancer cell lines of HeLa, MCF7 and HT-29, they found that granny smith apple inhibited the proliferation of these cells and the most deterrent was related to HeLa cell line. The authors of this article believe that phenolic ingredients of granny smith apple (with a strong antioxidant property) can affect the oxidation and regeneration system and reduce cells proliferation. Other researchers have attributed cellular proliferation to levels of vitamin C and some carotenoids and anthocyanin.
Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Catechin, Epicatechin, Rutin, Quercetin, Pheloredzin, Cyanidin.
Granny smith apples are used to treat gout and nervous diseases in the ancient times. In traditional medicine granny smith apple is used to treat diarrhea, fever and nausea and to strengthen the stomach and it is said that this fruit is very useful for warm-tempered people and those who are cold-tempered should eat sweet apple.