Canadian Ginseng, American ginseng
Panax quinquefolius L.
Ginseng is a low growth, shadow friend and perennial plant, from the Araliaceae family. English word of Ginseng takes from Chinese expression (Ren Shen). Ren means (person) and Shen means (plant root). This name refers to fork-shaped root of Ginseng that is like human foot. In traditional medicine books the root of Ginseng plant has been called (Genus) or (Gensa) in Arabic. The name of panax takes from Greek word means (therapist). Surveillance of china against Korea ginseng farms began in sixteenth century. In early decades of twentieth century, due to the product obtained from natural farms, it did not respond to people`s demand for this plant, Korea began commercial cultivation, which continued until today. World trade of Ginseng was about 80000 ton that all of this volume was produced in four countries: China, South Korea, Canada, and United states in 2010. Human-shaped root of Ginseng caused a group of Europe old botanists believe that the root of this plant can enhance different parts of human body. The root of this plant is used to weakness curing, Atherosclerosis, blood disorders, bleeding, colitis, cancer and reducing effects of diseases caused by age increasing.
1. Boosting Libido
Effect of American ginseng on sexual intercourse behavior was tested on male rat in 1998 and its results were published in Physiology and Behavior mature rat of Sprague-Dawley race with 10, 50 or 100 mg/kg orally. American ginseng or carrier sesame oil was indicated for 28 days and sexual intercourse behavior parameters were measured. Male rats cured with ginseng showed significant reduction in delay outbreak of their intercourse behavior. In all doses of ginseng of plasma prolactin levels reduced significantly. These results have shown that American ginseng facilitates outbreak intercourse behavior significantly. It is possible that American ginseng effect on intercourse behavior stimulation in male rat is due to its effect on nervous transferring of Dopaminergic. Recent studies on laboratory animals have shown that both Asian and American ginseng increase function of sexual desire and sexual orientation. These effects of ginseng may not be due to changes in the secretion of the hormone but may be due to direct effects of ginseng or ginsenoside ingredients on central nervous system and Gonadal textures (reproductive organs of producing sexual cell). Also curing with American ginseng affects central nervous system and changes Catecholamines hypothalamus activity involved in facilitation of sexual orientation & sexual secretion significantly.
2. Improving Neurocognitive Function
A study was done on American ginseng effect on nervous-cognitive function and its results were published in Psychopharmacology Berl journal. Ginsenosides of American ginseng showed the effects of cognitive function multiplier in human. For this purpose in a random experiment between 32 young healthy adult, effects of 3 densities (100,200, 400 mg) on acute creating measured nervous cognitive function and blood glucose from standardized American ginseng with 65.1% of ginsenosides followed by the use of ginseng significant improvement in working memory function (WM) was observed. The function of spatial memory also improved with all doses. According to this study, increasing power of working memory followed by American ginseng prescription has been proved. These effects are different from Asian ginseng & show that features (affecting mind and behavior) of American ginseng depend on ginsenoside profiles significantly.
3. Treating Cold Symptoms
Rich extracts of polysaccharide ginseng increase spleen cell proliferation and Macrofago activity in cell cultures. It also increases stimulation of Immunoglobulin (IgG, the body resistance factor to infection) in live creature and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a mediator for body protecting against infection and malignancy) from macrofago. In done experiments, macrofago of mouse cured with American ginseng extract contain 10% ginsenosides inhibited Nitrous oxide caused by lipopolisakarida.
4. Boosting Vitality and Energy
American ginseng, one tonic (forceful) and a lot of Adaptogenas (compromise creator), increases resistance and physically vitality, maintains body resistance to unpleasant factors and homeostasis and increases physical and sexual functions, increases vitality, decreases stress and prevents aging. These effects created by affect Hypothalamus hypophysis adrenal axis and hypothalamus hypophysis adrenal axis or generally by antioxidant effects or Oxygen and increased cellular glucose absorption.
5. Improving Memory Function
Findings showed that ginsenosides Rb1 that is a Saponin in American ginseng has helpful effects on brain memory and learning activities and apparently does this act by effecting on chlorogenic system. In hybridation studies, it has shown that Rb1, expression colin still transfrase and trKA Mrnas at the front of the brain and expression mRNA (nerve growth factor in Hippocampus) increase center of data saving and memory and also communication between emotions and the apparent senses in the brain.
A study was done on anti-proliferation activity of heated American ginseng root and its ginsenosides ingredients and its results were published in Planta Medica journal in 2007 with steaming root in 120 degrees Celsius, Rg3 ginsenosides content that in past studies was identified as anti-cancer ingredients, increases significantly. Based on a study in 2003, long term use of ginseng reduced age dependent oxidative stress in rat. Ginseng can prevent increasing oxidant production and oxidative injury of protein related to age in rats. A study in 2008 about the thermal process on breast cancer cells was considered and its results were published in Anticancer Research journal. In this study, the chemical structure of both American ginsengs was untreated and heated and their anti-proliferative activities were investigated on human breast cancer cells compared with untreated extract, under thermal process extract (2 hours steamed) significantly increase anti-proliferation activity and decrease the number of alive cells significantly. As a result, heated American ginseng root increases anti-proliferation and affects cellular cycle features significantly.
71 people over 60 years old randomly divided under treatment and control to 36 cases of them, gave a syrup containing America ginseng ingredients as under treatment group and to 35 people a syrup containing American ginseng was prescribed as a control group. Total effect rate on aging-related symptoms was 89.88% in under treatment group and 57.68% in control group that was different from each other significantly. Physiological age in under treatment group reduced (age and functional power of body members, not age of person`s birth certificate) from 77.751 to 53.743 that its effective rate was 57.68.
8. Regulating Blood Glucose Levels
According to the hypotheses, the ginseng is one of plants that plays a role in metabolism, carbohydrate and diabetes mellitus.
A short term clinical study did in 2000 on effect of American ginseng on amount of blood glucose after food in diabetic people and people with type-2 diabetes mellitus and its results were published in Archives of Internal medicine. For this purpose, 10 people of non-diabetic (with average 34 years old) and 9 people with type-2 diabetes mellitus (average age: 62 years old) randomly received 3 grams ginseng or placebo capsules, 40 minutes before or with 25 grams orally glucose for glucose challenge test (GCT). According to results, when ginseng was received for 40 minutes before orally glucose, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed. American ginseng reduces amount of blood glucose after food in both study groups. In non-diabetic people in order to prevent reduction of blood glucose of Hypoglycemia, it may be unwillingly important that American ginseng taken from the meal. American ginseng root effect mechanism is indeterminate to cure diabetes types. The studies showed that American ginseng increases insulin production and decreases the death of Beta-pancreas cells.
9. Regulating Blood Cholesterol Levels
A study did on effect of American red ginseng (ARG) on diabetic mice in 2012 and its results were published in journal of Food Science. Cured group with American red ginseng showed a significant lower level of blood glucose than control group in additional increased Glycogen and Lipoprotein contents or high density level (HDL) while plasma cholesterol levels and lipoprotein density with low density level (LDL) significantly reduced in treated group with ARG. A study did in 2012 on ginseng effect on Lipid profile and some indicators parameters myocardial condition in diabetic rats with Streptozotocin and its result were published in The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology. According to results, use of ginseng improved glucose, Hemoglobin glycosylated (HbA1C), insulin and free T3 levels (test of Thyroid function measuring) also significantly reduced serum cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL levels significantly.
The most significant active constituents in American ginseng are a group of triterpenoid saponins known as ginsenosides. Ginsenoside-Rb1 is the major ginsenoside present in American ginseng. It also contains tannins, oligosaccharides, monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and mannose), phenolic compounds, amino acids, volatile oils, vitamins and minerals.
American ginseng traditionally is used as tea as tonic (force maker) and Aphrodisiac (a powerful drug of sexual power). Its boiled form is used for headache relief and women problems. According to the evidences American ginseng root prevents the nightmare in children and infants and cure bloating and colic problems. Indians use ginseng for curing disorder types such as stomach discomfort and eye pain. Native Americans use this plant as a pain killer, anticoagulant, expectorant, digestive booster, helper to women problems and totally a powerful material.